Generally, though, anyone with internet access has historically been able to access the vast majority of it. The internet had previously been divided into two: the open web, which most of the world could access; and the authoritarian web of countries like China, which is parceled out stingily and heavily monitored. As of today, though, the web no longer feels truly worldwide.
Instead we now have the American internet, the authoritarian internet, and the European internet. How does the EU Copyright Directive change our understanding of the web? James Vincent describes its changes, which still must be implemented by individual countries, in The Verge :. Article 11 lets publishers charge platforms like Google News when they display snippets of news stories, while Article 13 renamed Article 17 in the most recent draft of the legislation gives sites like YouTube new duties to stop users from uploading copyrighted content.
In both cases, critics say these well-intentioned laws will lead to trouble.
The law does not explicitly call for such filters, but critics say it will be an inevitability as sites seek to avoid penalties.
Assuming this law is implemented, Google may choose to shut down Google News in Europe. It pulled out of Spain in after that country implemented a similar rule around displaying snippets of text.
Google has said it could follow suit across Europeand other companies could follow. If Google has to pay to effectively quote news stories, what other websites might face similar restrictions?
The company famously played fast and loose with copyright during its early days, and Europe apparently has a long memory. YouTube has lobbied vigorously against the law, and galvanized impressive popular support in Europe, as Karl Bode noted in Motherboard :. More thanEuropeans took to the streets to protest the proposal last weekend, and an online petition calling for the removal of the most controversial parts of the proposal has received more than 5 million signatures.The healthy food cafe
At the moment, the defining feature of the European internet might be uncertainty. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, which lobbied against the bill, is predicting disaster. We can expect media and rightsholders to lobby for the most draconian possible national laws, then promptly march to the courts to extract fines whenever anyone online wanders over its fuzzy lines. Whatever Internet companies and organizations do to comply with twenty-seven or more national laws — from dropping links to European news sites entirely, to upping their already over-sensitive filtering systems, or seeking to strike deals with key media conglomerates — will be challenged by one rightsholder faction or another.
One key paradox at the heart of the Directive will have to be resolved very soon.Article about food webs delivery service
The packages in question offered the customers preferential access to certain applications known as "zero tariff"and the specific feature of those packages was that the data traffic generated by selected applications and services did not count towards the consumption of the data volume purchased by the customers.
In addition, once that volume of data had been used up, those customers were able to continue to use those specific applications and services without restriction, while measures of blocking or slowing down data traffic were applied to other available applications and services. The CJEU affirmed the NMHH's decision that the conclusion of agreements, by which customers subscribe to a package combining a "zero tariff" and measures blocking or slowing down the traffic linked to the use of "non-zero tariff" services and applications, is liable to limit the exercise of end-users' rights on a significant part of the market.
Such packages are liable to increase the use of the favoured applications and services and, accordingly, to reduce the use of other applications and services available, with regard to the measures by which the provider of the internet access services makes that use technically more difficult, if not impossible.
Furthermore, the greater the number of customers concluding such agreements, the more likely it is that, given its scale, the cumulative effect of those agreements will result in a significant limitation of the exercise of end-users' rights, or even undermine the very essence of those rights.
In addition, the Court held that, where measures blocking or slowing down traffic are not based on objectively different technical quality of service requirements for specific categories of traffic, but on commercial considerations, those measures must in themselves be regarded as incompatible with the Regulation. To conclude, Telenor's service packages that limited access to specified mobile applications after a data volume was reached, while continuing to allow unlimited access to other applications, violates the principle of net neutrality and therefore the Open Internet Regulation.
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UEFA, the governing body of football in Europe, has secured an order from the Irish High Court requiring several internet service providers ISPs to block the illegal live streaming of matches for Electronic sports esports are booming, despite the fact that videogames have existed now for more than 30 years. December — The introduction of 5G networks will bring significant changes to the telecommunications market.
The film industry has always been associated with established places like Hollywood or Bollywood.
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European Union Raids Three Internet Providers
Mondaq Advice Centres.OJ L In force: This act has been changed. Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article thereof. It aims to protect end-users and simultaneously to guarantee the continued functioning of the internet ecosystem as an engine of innovation. Reforms in the field of roaming should give end-users the confidence to stay connected when they travel within the Union, and should, over time, become a driver of convergent pricing and other conditions in the Union.
The measures provided for in this Regulation respect the principle of technological neutrality, that is to say they neither impose nor discriminate in favour of the use of a particular type of technology. The internet has developed over the past decades as an open platform for innovation with low access barriers for end-users, providers of content, applications and services and providers of internet access services.
The existing regulatory framework aims to promote the ability of end-users to access and distribute information or run applications and services of their choice. However, a significant number of end-users are affected by traffic management practices which block or slow down specific applications or services. Those tendencies require common rules at the Union level to ensure the openness of the internet and to avoid fragmentation of the internal market resulting from measures adopted by individual Member States.
An internet access service provides access to the internet, and in principle to all the end-points thereof, irrespective of the network technology and terminal equipment used by end-users.
However, for reasons outside the control of providers of internet access services, certain end points of the internet may not always be accessible. Therefore, such providers should be deemed to have complied with their obligations related to the provision of an internet access service within the meaning of this Regulation when that service provides connectivity to virtually all end points of the internet.
Providers of internet access services should therefore not restrict connectivity to any accessible end-points of the internet. Providers of internet access services should not impose restrictions on the use of terminal equipment connecting to the network in addition to those imposed by manufacturers or distributors of terminal equipment in accordance with Union law.
End-users should have the right to access and distribute information and content, and to use and provide applications and services without discrimination, via their internet access service. The exercise of this right should be without prejudice to Union law, or national law that complies with Union law, regarding the lawfulness of content, applications or services. This Regulation does not seek to regulate the lawfulness of the content, applications or services, nor does it seek to regulate the procedures, requirements and safeguards related thereto.
Those matters therefore remain subject to Union law, or national law that complies with Union law.Programs to help writing
In order to exercise their rights to access and distribute information and content and to use and provide applications and services of their choice, end-users should be free to agree with providers of internet access services on tariffs for specific data volumes and speeds of the internet access service. Such agreements, as well as any commercial practices of providers of internet access services, should not limit the exercise of those rights and thus circumvent provisions of this Regulation safeguarding open internet access.
To this end, the assessment of agreements and commercial practices should, inter alia, take into account the respective market positions of those providers of internet access services, and of the providers of content, applications and services, that are involved.
When providing internet access services, providers of those services should treat all traffic equally, without discrimination, restriction or interference, independently of its sender or receiver, content, application or service, or terminal equipment. According to general principles of Union law and settled case-law, comparable situations should not be treated differently and different situations should not be treated in the same way unless such treatment is objectively justified.
The objective of reasonable traffic management is to contribute to an efficient use of network resources and to an optimisation of overall transmission quality responding to the objectively different technical quality of service requirements of specific categories of traffic, and thus of the content, applications and services transmitted. Reasonable traffic management measures applied by providers of internet access services should be transparent, non-discriminatory and proportionate, and should not be based on commercial considerations.
The requirement for traffic management measures to be non-discriminatory does not preclude providers of internet access services from implementing, in order to optimise the overall transmission quality, traffic management measures which differentiate between objectively different categories of traffic.
Any such differentiation should, in order to optimise overall quality and user experience, be permitted only on the basis of objectively different technical quality of service requirements for example, in terms of latency, jitter, packet loss, and bandwidth of the specific categories of traffic, and not on the basis of commercial considerations.
Such differentiating measures should be proportionate in relation to the purpose of overall quality optimisation and should treat equivalent traffic equally.
Such measures should not be maintained for longer than necessary. Reasonable traffic management does not require techniques which monitor the specific content of data traffic transmitted via the internet access service. Any traffic management practices which go beyond such reasonable traffic management measures, by blocking, slowing down, altering, restricting, interfering with, degrading or discriminating between specific content, applications or services, or specific categories of content, applications or services, should be prohibited, subject to the justified and defined exceptions laid down in this Regulation.
Those exceptions should be subject to strict interpretation and to proportionality requirements. Specific content, applications and services, as well as specific categories thereof, should be protected because of the negative impact on end-user choice and innovation of blocking, or of other restrictive measures not falling within the justified exceptions.
Rules against altering content, applications or services refer to a modification of the content of the communication, but do not ban non-discriminatory data compression techniques which reduce the size of a data file without any modification of the content.The European Union has had net neutrality regulations in place sincebut some are concerned that internet service providers are playing fast and loose with those rules.
A group of 45 advocate organizations, companies and individuals including the Electronic Frontier Foundation have sent a letter to EU officials accusing ISPs of jeopardizing net neutrality though the use of deep packet inspection, which verifies the content of data traffic well beyond the basics.
Existing rules allow carriers to shape traffic to optimize their network resources, but at least some ISPs are using this for "differentiated pricing," prioritization or throttling. European regulators have "turned a blind eye" to these violations, the group said, and there are concerns that these overseers are trying to further soften the rules as part of negotiations over new EU rules. This would let providers use deep packet inspection to effectively bypass the rules and charge more for different parts of the internet.
It could compromise privacy, too, by giving companies user data under the pretext of juggling traffic. It's not certain how EU leaders will react. There's plenty of time for input, though. Public consultations start in falland the vote won't likely take place until March The group just doesn't want to take any chances -- it's hoping this nudge will set the policy on the right track before the larger public has its say.
Buyer's Guide. Log in. Sign up. Twitter will discontinue its standalone Periscope apps in March. Latest in Gear. Image credit:. Sponsored Links. In this article: deep packet inspectioneueuropeeuropean uniongearinternetinternet service providerispnet neutralitypoliticsprivacyregulation. All products recommended by Engadget are selected by our editorial team, independent of our parent company.
Some of our stories include affiliate links. If you buy something through one of these links, we may earn an affiliate commission. China's Chang'e-5 probe returns to Earth with lunar samples. Future Snapdragon phones can get up to four years of security updates. MacBook Pro M1 review inch, : Pro, but only to a point. Amazon's custom Ka-band antenna will deliver less expensive satellite internet.
From around the web. Page 1 Page 1 ear icon eye icon Fill 23 text file vr.Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor. European Union officials on Thursday conducted raids on three telecommunications companies as part of ongoing anti-trust investigations.
Though the EC did not name the telecom companies involved in the investigation.
Europe is splitting the internet into three
Deutsche Telekom and Orange SA both confirmed the raid in separate statements, and Reuters reported that Telefonica was also raided, citing a source familiar with the issue. The three Internet companies act as conduits through which smaller content providers offer their services at the retail level.
The raids were conducted in response to complaints by local regulator Cogent Communications Group Inc. Cogent alleges that the European telecom companies don't provide enough bandwidth to meet demand. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview.
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The European Union Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, to use its full name, requires the likes of YouTube, Facebook and Twitter to take more responsibility for copyrighted material being shared illegally on their platforms.
It's become known by the most controversial segment, Article 13, which critics claim will have a detrimental impact on creators online.
YouTube, and YouTubers, have become the most vocal opponents of the proposal. On April 15,the European Council — the political body composed of government ministers from each of the 28 EU member states — voted to adopt into EU law the copyright directive as passed by the European Parliament in March.
Six member states Finland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden voted against adopting the directive while three Belgium, Estonia and Slovenia abstained from the vote. The remaining 19 member states all voted for the directive.
But it's not completely over yet. In a tweet, the Prime Minister's office said that the entire directive "fuels censorship and threatens freedom of expression. Unless the Polish court case changes anything — and that's a big if — individual member states will have two years to turn the new rules into their own national law.
In order to see this embed, you must give consent to Social Media cookies. Open my cookie preferences. The European Union Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market is a European Union directive that is designed to limit how copyrighted content is shared on online platforms. EU directives are a form of legislation that set an objective for member states to achieve.
The Directive on Copyright and its most controversial component, Article 13, requires online platforms to filter or remove copyrighted material from their websites.
The Directive on Copyright would make online platforms and aggregator sites liable for copyright infringements, and supposedly direct more revenue from tech giants towards artists and journalists.
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